Ozone (O3) is the triatomic, allotropic form of oxygen (O2). It is an unstable gas with a pungent odor. Since ozone is unstable, it must be generated at the point of application.
The Ozone molecule, having a molecular weight of 48, is made up of three oxygen atoms bound by equal oxygen-oxygen bonds at an obtuse angle of 116o49’. This structure is inherently unstable and is the reason for ozone’s powerful oxidizing ability. Ozone has approximately 150% the oxidizing potential of chlorine. The physical properties of ozone and comparative oxidizing potentials for other chemical oxidants are presented in Table 1 and Table 2, respectively.
|Table 1Physical Constants of Ozone||Table 2Comparative Oxidizing Potentials,25oC Volts|
|Molecular weight, g/g-mol||48.0||Fluorine (F2)||2.87|
|Boiling point, oC||-111.9||Ozone (O3)||2.07|
|Melting point, oC||-193||Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)||1.78|
|Gas density, 0oC grams/liter||2.144||Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4)||1.70|
|Critical temperature, oC||-12.1||Hyprobromous Acid (HOBr)||1.59|
|Critical pressure, atm.||54.6||Hypochlorous Acid (HOCl)||1.49|
|Critical volume, cc/mol||147.1||Chlorine (Cl2)||1.36|
|Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)||1.27|
|Chromic Acid (H2CrO4)||1.21|
|Nitric Acid (HNO3)||0.94|